Most cases of colon cancer begin as a set of small, non-cancerous (benign) cells called an «Adenomatous polyp». Over time, some of these polyps may develop into colon cancer.
Colorectal cancer originates in the innermost layer (the mucosa) and can grow outward through some or all of the other layers. When the cancer cells are in the wall, they can grow into the blood vessels or lymph vessels. From there, cancer cells can move to nearby lymph nodes or distant parts of the body.

Many people with colon cancer do not have any symptoms in the early stages of the disease.

  • Change in bowel habits, such as diarrhea or constipation.
  • Persistent abdominal discomfort, such as cramping, gas or pain.
  • Weakness.
  • Change in stool consistency that lasts more than four weeks.
  • Frequent cramping or cramping from gas, or a feeling of fullness or swelling.
  • Weight loss without known reason.
  • Fatigue.
  • Nausea or vomiting.

The following factors may increase the risk of developing colorectal cancer:

  • Advanced age. The vast majority of people diagnosed with colon cancer are over 50 years old. Colon cancer may occur in younger people, but with much less frequency.
  • Personal history of colorectal cancer or polyps. Intestinal inflammatory diseases.
  • Chronic inflammatory diseases of the colon, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.
  • African-American race. African-Americans have a higher risk of colon cancer.
  • Inherited syndromes that increase the risk of colon cancer. The genetic syndromes include adenomatous polyposis and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, also known as «Lynch’s syndrome».
  • Family history of colon cancer. If more than one member of your family has colon or rectal cancer, the risk is even greater

In most types of cancer, a biopsy is the only method that allows a definitive cancer diagnosis. If a biopsy is not possible, the doctor may suggest that other tests that helps to make a diagnosis.

In addition to the physical exam, the following tests may be used to diagnose colorectal cancer:

  • Digital rectal examination .
  • Colonoscopy.
  • Biopsy.
  • stool blood test
  • Sigmoidoscopy.

The common treatment options for colorectal cancer:

  • Surgery.
  • Chemotherapy.
  • Radiotherapy.
  • Active surveillance.

The options and recommendations of the treatments depend on several factors, among them, the type and stage of the cancer, the possible side effects, as well as the preferences of the patient and his state of health.

  • Diet rich in fiber, low fat
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Starting 50 years old should be realized preventive examinations: blood conceals in dregs, colonoscopy, digital rectal examination.
  • Preventive Family history exams
  • No Smoking.
  • Avoid the consumption of alcoholic drinks.
  • Avoid eating foods with preservatives.

Healthy eating habit is vital for the body to function well. Changing your habits for better healt.